mindblowingscience:

Scientists Have Cloned Embryos From Adult Cells For the First Time Ever

Ever since Dolly the sheep was cloned eighteen years ago, scientists have been trying and failing to use that same technique to create cloned human embryos from adult cells. Now, they’ve finally succeeded, in what could a major step toward personalized organ transplants and other therapies that rely on a pool of stem cells.
Last year, a different team of scientists reported a breakthrough in creating the first cloned human embryos ever. That team used cells taken from a fetus and an eight-month-old infant. This new result, published in the journal Cell Stem Cell, tweaks the procedure to make it also work with skin cells from two adult men, ages 35 and 75.
Confirming that human clone embryos can indeed be made with adult cells means we could potentially someday scrape off a bit of your skin, put it in a cloned embryo, and extract stem cells personalized with your DNA. Those stem cells can then theoretically be programmed grow into any type of tissue—including an organ for transplant.
The basic process is the same as the one used to clone Dolly. The nucleus, which contains DNA, is sucked out of the adult cell and carefully placed in a donor egg, whose own nucleus has been removed. Scientists have gotten this process to work in over 20 different species, but humans, until recently, have proven tricky.
This result does not mean that cloned babies will be born anytime soon, however. The resulting embryo was missing some types of cells and would not have been able to implant in the womb. The difficulty of getting embryos to grow in the womb is, in fact, why partly scientists still haven’t been able to clone monkeys.
The most promising use of this human cloning technique is in creating embryos as a source of personalized stem cells. Currently, we get stem cells from embryos leftover from in vitro fertilization (IVF)—or we reprogram them from adult cells. Both techniques have their drawbacks, however, as IVF stem cells do not perfectly match the patient’s, and the reprogramming may not ever be entirely complete in adult cells, according to some studies.
Any therapies that may result from cloning adult cells is still far, far off on the horizon. Even with this basic lab research, plenty of questions about the moral implications of human cloning remain. It’s been 18 years since Dolly—but the ethical dilemmas haven’t changed a bit. [Cell Stem Cell via Wall Street Journal, TIME]

Top image: Artist rendering of the nuclear transfer technique for cloning. Giovanni Cancemi/Shutterstock

mindblowingscience:

Scientists Have Cloned Embryos From Adult Cells For the First Time Ever

Ever since Dolly the sheep was cloned eighteen years ago, scientists have been trying and failing to use that same technique to create cloned human embryos from adult cells. Now, they’ve finally succeeded, in what could a major step toward personalized organ transplants and other therapies that rely on a pool of stem cells.

Last year, a different team of scientists reported a breakthrough in creating the first cloned human embryos ever. That team used cells taken from a fetus and an eight-month-old infant. This new result, published in the journal Cell Stem Cell, tweaks the procedure to make it also work with skin cells from two adult men, ages 35 and 75.

Confirming that human clone embryos can indeed be made with adult cells means we could potentially someday scrape off a bit of your skin, put it in a cloned embryo, and extract stem cells personalized with your DNA. Those stem cells can then theoretically be programmed grow into any type of tissue—including an organ for transplant.

The basic process is the same as the one used to clone Dolly. The nucleus, which contains DNA, is sucked out of the adult cell and carefully placed in a donor egg, whose own nucleus has been removed. Scientists have gotten this process to work in over 20 different species, but humans, until recently, have proven tricky.

This result does not mean that cloned babies will be born anytime soon, however. The resulting embryo was missing some types of cells and would not have been able to implant in the womb. The difficulty of getting embryos to grow in the womb is, in fact, why partly scientists still haven’t been able to clone monkeys.

The most promising use of this human cloning technique is in creating embryos as a source of personalized stem cells. Currently, we get stem cells from embryos leftover from in vitro fertilization (IVF)—or we reprogram them from adult cells. Both techniques have their drawbacks, however, as IVF stem cells do not perfectly match the patient’s, and the reprogramming may not ever be entirely complete in adult cells, according to some studies.

Any therapies that may result from cloning adult cells is still far, far off on the horizon. Even with this basic lab research, plenty of questions about the moral implications of human cloning remain. It’s been 18 years since Dolly—but the ethical dilemmas haven’t changed a bit. [Cell Stem Cell via Wall Street JournalTIME]

Top image: Artist rendering of the nuclear transfer technique for cloning. Giovanni Cancemi/Shutterstock

(via galaxyclusters)

@20 hours ago with 178 notes
#biology #cloning #humans 

wildlydistorted:

What does it feel like to fly over planet Earth?

A time lapse taken from the front of the International Space Station as it orbits our planet at night. Beginning over the Pacific Ocean and continuing over North and South America before entering daylight near Antarctica.
Visible cities, countries and landmarks include (in order) Vancouver Island, Victoria, Vancouver, Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, Los Angeles. Phoenix. Multiple cities in Texas, New Mexico and Mexico. Mexico City, the Gulf of Mexico, the Yucatan Peninsula, El Salvador, Lightning in the Pacific Ocean, Guatemala, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Lake Titicaca, and the Amazon. Also visible is the Earth’s ionosphere (thin yellow line), a satellite and the stars of our galaxy.

(via herestonothingg)

@1 week ago with 6644 notes
did-you-kno:

Source 
@2 weeks ago with 5494 notes
#fact #animals 

FUNGI

FUNGI

(via ahhhhhlissa)

@2 weeks ago with 316 notes
#fungi 
planetaryfolklore:

ageofdestruction:
moth: Comet and solar corona, photographed by SOHO, April 2004.
Comet Bradfield (C/2004 F4) at and just after perihelion. This animation uses 23 images taken 17th-19th April, about one every two hours. At its closest, the comet was about 25 million km from the sun (16% of the Earth-Sun distance).
C/2004 F4 was discovered by William Bradfield, amateur astronomer and prolific comet hunter: The most prolific comet hunter of all was Jean-Louis Pons (1761-1831) with 37; the second William Robert Brooks (1844-1921) with 26; Bradfield has discovered 18.
The most prolific comet detecting instrument, incidentally, is SOHO, with more than 2,500 discoveries.  
Image credit: NASA/ESA/GSFC. Animation: AgeOfDestruction.

planetaryfolklore:

ageofdestruction:

moth: Comet and solar corona, photographed by SOHO, April 2004.

Comet Bradfield (C/2004 F4) at and just after perihelion. This animation uses 23 images taken 17th-19th April, about one every two hours. At its closest, the comet was about 25 million km from the sun (16% of the Earth-Sun distance).

C/2004 F4 was discovered by William Bradfield, amateur astronomer and prolific comet hunter: The most prolific comet hunter of all was Jean-Louis Pons (1761-1831) with 37; the second William Robert Brooks (1844-1921) with 26; Bradfield has discovered 18.

The most prolific comet detecting instrument, incidentally, is SOHO, with more than 2,500 discoveries.  

Image credit: NASA/ESA/GSFC. Animation: AgeOfDestruction.

(via galaxyclusters)

@2 weeks ago with 651 notes
#gif #comet #space 
@2 weeks ago with 365 notes
#animals #illustration 

thekidshouldseethis:

If you caught Episode Two of Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey, you will have seen how, over time, dogs evolved from wolves into the breeds that we know now. (And if you haven’t seen it, definitely check it out.) But Neil deGrasse Tyson didn’t touch on this specific evolutionary detail:

Wolves howl and dogs bark. So why do dogs bark?

File under: dogs and communication.

(via galaxyclusters)

@2 weeks ago with 803 notes
#ohmygawd #it looks like chula #animals 
did-you-kno:

Source
@1 month ago with 5014 notes
#science! get hard #fact 

biovisual:

Baby Squid Photography by Jeannot Kuenzel - Malta
All rights reserved by Jeannot Kuenzel
sharing enabled / downloading enabled
Posted on Flickr March 29 and 31, 2014

top image
EGGS of Loligo vulgaris: the European squid, a large squid belonging to the family Loliginidae.

bottom image

Two stages of the development of a [European squid] are visible in the picture. These eggs are about 3mm in diameter; when the little squid inside has used up all the nutrients (all the yolk that is attached to it), it plops its suckers to the inside of the diaphragm and releases enzymes that will aid opening the shell, pushing through the opening - and a tiny new ALIEN of the DEEP is born :]

Notice the CHROMATOPHORES already embedded in its skin and the tiny little SIPHON… BTW, the SQUID on the left is actually laying on its back…

(via galaxyclusters)

@1 day ago with 567 notes
#squid #cephalopod #animals #ocean 

An artist in collaboration with a MIT researcher has created a series of sandcastles etched onto individual grains of sand.

did-you-kno:

Source

@1 week ago with 11718 notes
#fact #humans #mit #art 

Lily Moth / Polytela Gloriosae

Lily Moth / Polytela Gloriosae

(Source: nikolawashere, via ahhhhhlissa)

@2 weeks ago with 74090 notes
#moth #animals 
Salar de Uyuni (Bolivia) by night.

"When the night comes, the starry sky reflects on its surface like in a mirror, and you have the feeling of being in space.

(Source: tsumetaiyozora, via didyoueatallthisacid)

@2 weeks ago with 218051 notes
#space #humans 
@2 weeks ago with 943 notes
#cosmos #gif 
planetaryfolklore:

ageofdestruction:
moth: Comet and solar corona, photographed by SOHO, April 2004.
Comet Bradfield (C/2004 F4) at and just after perihelion. This animation uses 23 images taken 17th-19th April, about one every two hours. At its closest, the comet was about 25 million km from the sun (16% of the Earth-Sun distance).
C/2004 F4 was discovered by William Bradfield, amateur astronomer and prolific comet hunter: The most prolific comet hunter of all was Jean-Louis Pons (1761-1831) with 37; the second William Robert Brooks (1844-1921) with 26; Bradfield has discovered 18.
The most prolific comet detecting instrument, incidentally, is SOHO, with more than 2,500 discoveries.  
Image credit: NASA/ESA/GSFC. Animation: AgeOfDestruction.

planetaryfolklore:

ageofdestruction:

moth: Comet and solar corona, photographed by SOHO, April 2004.

Comet Bradfield (C/2004 F4) at and just after perihelion. This animation uses 23 images taken 17th-19th April, about one every two hours. At its closest, the comet was about 25 million km from the sun (16% of the Earth-Sun distance).

C/2004 F4 was discovered by William Bradfield, amateur astronomer and prolific comet hunter: The most prolific comet hunter of all was Jean-Louis Pons (1761-1831) with 37; the second William Robert Brooks (1844-1921) with 26; Bradfield has discovered 18.

The most prolific comet detecting instrument, incidentally, is SOHO, with more than 2,500 discoveries.  

Image credit: NASA/ESA/GSFC. Animation: AgeOfDestruction.

(via galaxyclusters)

@2 weeks ago with 651 notes
#gif #comet #space 
@2 weeks ago with 943 notes
#cosmos #gif